Large cats in city jungle: LA mountain lions, Mumbai leopards


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Los Angeles and Mumbai, India, share many superlatives as pinnacles of cinema, trend, and visitors congestion. However one other similarity lurks within the shadows, most frequently seen at night time strolling silently on 4 paws.

These metropolises are the world’s solely megacities of 10 million-plus the place giant felines — mountain lions in a single, leopards in the opposite — thrive by breeding, searching and sustaining territory inside city boundaries.

Lengthy-term research in each cities have examined how the large cats prowl by way of their city jungles, and the way folks can greatest stay alongside them — classes which may be relevant to extra locations in coming many years.

“In the long run, there’s going to be extra cities like this, as city areas additional encroach on pure habitats,” stated biologist Audra Huffmeyer, who research mountain lions on the College of California, Los Angeles. “If we wish to maintain these giant carnivores round on the planet, we now have to be taught to stay with them.”


Twenty years in the past, scientists in Los Angeles positioned a monitoring collar on their first cat, a big male mountain lion dubbed P1, that defended a large swath of the Santa Monica Mountains, a coastal vary that lies inside and adjoining to the town.

“P1 was as huge as they get in southern California, about 150 kilos,” stated Seth Riley, a Nationwide Park Service ecologist who was a part of the hassle. “These dominant males are those that breed — they received’t tolerate different grownup males of their territory.”

With GPS monitoring and digicam traps, the scientists adopted the rise and fall of P1’s dynasty for seven years, by way of a number of mates and litters of kittens. “2009 was the final time we knew something about P1,” stated Riley. “There should have been a battle. We discovered his collar, blood on a rock. And by no means noticed him once more. He was moderately previous.”

Since then, Riley has helped collar round 100 extra mountain lions in Los Angeles, constructing an enormous database of lion habits that’s contributed to understanding how a lot territory the cats want, what they eat (principally deer), how usually they cross paths with folks and what could imperil their future.

As with medieval European kings, the largest menace turned out to be inbreeding. Dwelling in small territories separated by highways has induced some males to mate with daughters and granddaughters, who weren’t capable of naturally disperse farther away. That’s led to genetic issues corresponding to fertility points and kinked tails.

“Primarily based on genetic evaluation, we all know that P1 mated with P6, his daughter – that was the primary case we documented of this very shut inbreeding,” stated Riley.


In Mumbai, one in all the world’s most densely populated cities, the leopards are packed in, too: about 50 have tailored to an area ideally suited to 20. And but the nocturnal cats additionally preserve principally out of sight.

“As a result of these animals are so secretive, you don’t know a lot about them. You’ll be able to’t simply observe them,” stated Vidya Athreya, director of Wildlife Conservation Society in India and a part of a analysis crew that just lately fitted 5 leopards with monitoring collars.

The leopards’ core vary is centered round Sanjay Gandhi Nationwide Park, a protected space boxed on three sides by an urbanized panorama, together with a neighborhood that’s dwelling to 100,000 folks and practically a dozen leopards.

Researchers tackled particular questions from park managers, corresponding to how the cats cross busy roads close to the park.

To get the reply, they collared a giant male dubbed Maharaja. They discovered that it walked principally at night time and traversed over 60 kilometers (37 miles) in about per week, from the park in Mumbai to a different close by. The leopard crossed a busy state freeway, utilizing the identical spot to move, on three events. It additionally crossed a railway monitor.

The trail chosen by Maharaja is close by a latest freeway and a freight hall beneath development. Researchers stated that understanding the large cats’ freeway crossing habits will help coverage makers make knowledgeable selections about the place to construct animal underpasses to scale back accidents.


In Los Angeles, long-term mountain lion analysis displaying the hurt of fragmented habitat helped gasoline a profitable marketing campaign to construct a wildlife crossing bridge over U.S. Route 101, one in all the town’s busiest freeways. Building started on April 22.

When it’s completed in three years, the bridge will likely be lined in native vegetation and embody particular sound partitions to reduce mild and noise disturbances for nocturnal animals. It should join Santa Monica Mountains and Simi Hills, enlarging the courting pool for resident mountain lions.

However studying to stay alongside cats will not be solely a matter of infrastructure selections, but in addition human selections and training.

When Athreya first began advocating for co-existence with Mumbai’s leopards, she was met with skepticism and pushback from different biologists and coverage makers. They thought it could be inconceivable for large cats to stay alongside folks with out vital friction, or worse.

“The dominant narrative was about battle,” she stated. However she helped push the dialog to be about “negotiations, bettering the scenario for each wildlife and other people.”

That will not be to say residing alongside a giant predator is with out perils. In Mumbai, Purvi Lote noticed her first leopard when she was 5, on the porch of a relative’s dwelling. Terrified, she ran again inside to her mom. However now the 9-year-old says she isn’t as afraid of the large cats.

Like different kids, she doesn’t step open air alone after darkish. Youngsters and even adults journey in teams at night time, whereas blaring music from their telephones to be sure that leopards aren’t stunned. However probably the most basic rule, in keeping with the teen: “Whenever you see a leopard, don’t hassle it.”


Leopards in Mumbai tailored to primarily hunt feral canine that frequent rubbish dumps exterior the forest and principally attacked folks when cornered or attacked. However in 2010, 20 folks in Mumbai died in leopard assaults, stated Jagannath Kamble, an official at Mumbai’s protected forest.

The turning level was the conclusion that the understaffed forest division couldn’t simply preserve reacting to particular person assaults by capturing and transporting leopards to forests since they returned. As a substitute, it determined to concentrate on attempting to get folks to coexist with the predators.

Officers roped in volunteers, nongovernmental teams and the media for a public training program in 2011. Since then, fatalities have dropped steadily and nobody has been killed in an assault since 2017.

The final identified sufferer was Muttu Veli’s 4-year-old daughter Darshini. Veli, an workplace employee who got here to Mumbai in 1996, stated Darshini was enjoying exterior their dwelling in a slum at the sting of the forest and he or she simply didn’t return dwelling. Finally, her mauled physique was recovered.

“My daughter is gone. She received’t come again,” he stated.

In Los Angeles, there have been no human deaths attributed to mountain lions, however one nonfatal assault on a baby occurred in 2021.

Each cities have realized that attempting to seize, kill or relocate the cats isn’t the reply.

“Relocation and killing makes battle worse,” stated Beth Pratt, California regional director at Nationwide Wildlife Federation. “It’s higher to have a secure inhabitants, than one the place hierarchies and territories are disrupted.”

Avoidance is the most secure technique, she stated. “These huge cats are shy — they have an inclination to keep away from human contact as a lot as they will. They’re actually excessive introverts of the animal kingdom.”

Larson reported from Washington and Ghosal from Mumbai, India.

On Twitter, comply with Larson @larsonchristina and Ghosal @aniruddhg1

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